Jewish group of branches: J1-ZS227


The Jewish branches can be grouped according to their Y-DNA characteristics. These characteristics are often related to a period between 10000ybp-4000ybp. Some branches had a founding father effect in that period outside the Middle East which gives information on the location of their ancestor at the time of the founding father. For other branches it is more likely that the ancestors were in the Middle East, where, in most cases, no founding father effect took place and population growth was continuous. An overview of the Jewish groups of branches is present.


In this overview we defined five Ashkenazi J1-ZS227 branches. The J1-ZS227 branch has a Heinila timescale of 2.3 kybp. The present best estimate is 2.5kybp and is based on yfull. Above it is ZS241 which is just below YSC234.

In the definition used here, we get five branches. It is likely that the phylogenetic tree is more complex than the suggestion that we have five persons arriving in the Ashkenazi countries. The 4 branches are close together and the branches themselves are "broad", so likely they consist of different branches themselves. For the analysis of phylogenetic Jewish trees, it is probably one of the most interesting complex Jewish branches coming from Judea.

It is very likely that the children of ZS227-group (that have all the reported 24 markers) were Jewish is Judea-Israel. First estimate is 500 BCE (accuracy of about 500 years). One of the branches is S10608 (which is one of 7 equal markers). This branch has two subbranches (S12192 and 2762310), which are both Ashkenazi. The SNP's of the Ashkenazi groups ZS227-1st and ZS227-2nd are not yet sequenced with Big-Y or FullGenomes.

With all the available data of the J1-ZS227 group, it is expected that the descendant lines are Jewish or conversos. No other lines are found.

The people in these groups are often called the Cohen haplotype. The definition is not very strict, which lead to many confusing reports in the literature.

This group has many people on the Sephardic page of ftdna: N64408 Cohen from Turkey and Benveniste (4890) from Spain and Benveniste (105130) from Turkey, 201445 (Cohen, Iran), 68780 (Anzaroot, Syrian), 41226 (Anzarut, Lebanon), 252433 (Cohen, Egypt), 213201 (Evans, Italy).

In the public data one person is found as ZS241+ ZS227-. This is 165857 from Egypt. No information is found on the background of this person. ZS241+ has a Heinila time estimate of 3.7kybp.

See also the discussion on Cohen.

It makes it clear that the Cohen Jewish Priesthood is seriously given from father to son over the complete phylogenetic tree from the most recent common ancestor of this group to present. The tmrca by using STR and SNP is about 2.3-2.6 kybp. This means 600 BCE or 300 BCE. The error ranges are still quite large that it is inprinciple possible that the tmrca is after the year 0; however it is unlikely. It is most likely that it originated in the early period of Judaism.

An older article on this subject is by Hammer, Behar et al. (2009). They give some information on geographical distribution of some people in this group.

One of the branches below ZS227 left the Levant early. The descendants of ZS237 are in Italy and Peru (see and The shared ancestor between the Peruvian and the Italians was before the common era and possibly before the start or in the early period of Judaism.

Branches in this group

Branch # Y-DNA SNP# of
CE of ancestor
CE range
GroupAS M G I R J B C
AB-022 J1-ZS227-S12192114669-862-1300--400 J1-ZS227AS

table caption

List of SNPs in yfull tree:Home - A0-T - A1 - A1b - BT - CT - CF - F - GHIJK - HIJK - IJK - IJ - J - J1 - Z2215 - Z2217 - L620 - PF4816 - L136 - P58 - CTS9721 - Z643 - Z1865 - Z1853 - Z2331 - Z2324 - Z2317 - Z2313 - YSC0000234 - Y3081 - Y3082 - Y3087 - S20075