Catalogue of mtdna Jewish branches

Introduction

This page is a collection of Jewish mtdna branches. At the moment (januari 2019) the branches are defined by the analysis of 100% ftdna Family Finder Ashkenazi descent. It is expected that this can be increased later by other methodes so we can add Sephardic, Mizrahi and other Jewish heritages.

Data collection 2019

The method follows the method of Jeff Wexler (2018). Due to the strong endogamy of Ashkenazi, 100% Ashkenazi descendants have a large amount of matches, and many matches are above 100 cM. Characteristics: 18000 matches in default settings of ftdna Family Finder and a distribution as shown. As a comparison a diagram is given for a 100% Dutch person (Brabant) called Wim.

I selected 32 non-related persons that have 100% Ashkenazi descendancy and listed the matches of these 32 persons. This resulted in a grand total of 468402 matches. I selected the persons that have at least three matches above 80cM. This resulted in 19603 unique persons. In the next step the people were selected that have a mtDNA branch that is only reported if mtDNAfullsequence test is done. This resulted in 3589 mtDNAfullsequence branch results. These are the results that are used in the table below.

Additional the public results of the mtDNA phylogenetic tree of ftdna was used to determine the number of people that were measured by ftdna. This was determined as the sum of the people in the first 15 countries. Since I don't have the Unknown country, I miss 32%, which is the average of the complete sample. In the extreme case of a large branch (e.g. 1212 persons in H1) I miss 10% in the countries that are outside the first 15 countries. This does not change the pattern that I find.

mtdna is relatively small and the number of mutations in a given timeperiod is small. The average time for a mutation is about 1/16.569*2.5*10^-8 which is about 2400 years. This means that I will have four types of Jewish mtdna branchs:

  1. a genealogical branch that had a mutation relatively short before the start of Judaism and the mtdna branch has only descendants with this mutation.
  2. a variation of the previous scenario, where a both a mtdna named branch and a mtdna subbranch are Jewish branches.
  3. a genealogical branch had a last mutation long before the start of Judaism and the mtdna branch has both descendants from Jewish ancestor and descendant from non-Jewish ancestor.
  4. a genealogical branch was the result of a female becoming Jewish in period of the expanding Jewish population.
The first challenge I face is the difference between mtdna phylogenetic tree from the individual measurements (mtfullsequence in ftdna) and the defined phylogenetic tree of www.phylotree.org of Mannis van Oven. The measurements in ftdna give many more subbranches than the tree of phylotree.org. For the Jewish branches with six or more persons I looked for a person in that branch and registered the mutations and the number of matches at distance 0. This enabled me in most cases to define the SNP(s) of the Jewish branch, and report it in this mtdna table. Examples are MB-185, MB-098, MB-089, MB-091 and MB-051.

Only six of the 90 branches with six 100% Ashkenazi persons had a branch with both clear Ashkenazi and non-Jewish people. Given the mutation rate of 2400 years for mtdna, 7% is quite small. This was the case for the branches H1b1-T16362C +5899.1C+A8348G , H6a1a3 +A16482G+C16519T, H11a1 +C16519T, H56, H65a, K2a. Given the history of Ashkenazi, the distribution of mtdna haplogroups and the size of these branches, it seems likely that a significant part of these six branches descent from a European ancestor that became Jewish.

Distribution of the branches

In this diagram the almost 200 branches are reported. The diagram can be compared to the Ashkenazi Y-DNA branches in the Data section. The largest branch is far out the largest. About 35 branches represent 75% of the Ashkenazi peoples.

A mtdna haplogroup comparison with countries.

Since the large population growth of Ashkenazi Jews the number of branches give a better distribution over the haplogroups than the number of people. Similar diagrams were made in 2014 of Jewish Y-DNA. The discussion on a possible European origin of Ashkenazi Y-DNA stopped. The diagram showing the different mtDNA haplogroups in different populations was presented by Badro et al. 2013. The distribution of Ashkenazi branches is added so a comparison is possible.

Discussion

From the collected data i conclude that: This leads to the main conclusions: Earlier data suggests: On a specific branch:

The table

If you click on "# of persons", that column is sorted; if you click twice on "# of persons" the largest branch is shown first.

The reference to yfull and ftdna can be interesting. The ftdna data has more samples; the yfull data has from scientific publications and shows subbranches. Notice that the amount of registered samples is the result of a collection of people who were tested. They do not represent a representative collection of data.

Branch # mtdna nameapproximateSNPs of Jewish branch or comment# of
persons
# in ftdna
branch
ybp of
Behar, van Oven
et al. (2012)
MB-001A-T152C!-T16189C!yfull ftdna 240+-0
MB-002H1a3ayfull ftdna 2963850+-1620
MB-003H1a3byfull ftdna 1743150+-2060
MB-004H1byfull ftdna G15172A92596230+-1800
MB-005H1b1-T16362Cyfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group 5899.1C+A8348G114080+-0
MB-006H1b2yfull ftdna 1673660+-2770
MB-007H1b2a+H1b2a1yfull ftdna 4249700+-4060
MB-009H1b5yfull ftdna 1170+-0
MB-010H1fyfull ftdna T7309C+C8409T+T12945C+G15221A+A16183c3383670+-3620
MB-011H1c3yfull ftdna 12154530+-1850
MB-012H1e4+H1e4ayfull ftdna -57842730+-7140
MB-014H1oyfull ftdna 1392480+-3250
MB-015H1u2yfull ftdnainsufficient access 4130+-0
MB-016H1ai1yfull ftdna -13240+-0
MB-017H1ajyfull ftdnainsufficient access 6218170+-2950
MB-018H1aj1+H1aj1ayfull ftdna 50540+-0
MB-020H1as2yfull ftdna 52511650+-2230
MB-021H1axyfull ftdna 2154940+-2860
MB-022H1bdyfull ftdna 1180+-0
MB-023H1boyfull ftdna -13244480+-2170
MB-024H1bwyfull ftdnainsufficient access 3266110+-3690
MB-025H2a2a1gyfull ftdna 1180+-0
MB-026H2a2b1yfull ftdna T16224C+A16235G+C16519T4804390+-2080
MB-027H2a2b1a1yfull ftdna 1681810+-1630
MB-028H3yfull ftdna C10655T+T16298C+A16497G83868910+-1060
MB-029H3k1ayfull ftdna 1700+-0
MB-030H3-T16311C!yfull ftdna 1570+-0
MB-031H3pyfull ftdna 46606370+-2910
MB-032H3wyfull ftdna 47543230+-2310
MB-033H3apyfull ftdna 2635700+-3770
MB-034H4a1a1yfull ftdna 11656600+-2080
MB-035H4a1a1ayfull ftdna C16519T+ C152T!32685890+-1790
MB-036H4a1a3ayfull ftdna G513A+A14133G+C16519T6192370+-2400
MB-037H5'36yfull ftdna 2330+-0
MB-038H5yfull ftdnainsufficient access 31479870+-1400
MB-039H5ayfull ftdna 1199110+-1380
MB-040H5a1yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group C16519T54746560+-1530
MB-041H5a-T152C!yfull ftdna 1200+-0
MB-042H5a7yfull ftdna C16519T18401510+-2050
MB-043H5c2yfull ftdna 33370+-0
MB-044H5-C16192Tyfull ftdnainsufficient access 7180+-0
MB-045H5-T16311C!yfull ftdna C16167T+C16519T6120+-0
MB-046H6a1a1ayfull ftdna 2026820+-1130
MB-047H6a1a3yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group A16482G+C16519T71132950+-2660
MB-048H6a1a5yfull ftdna A16482G+C16519T34531730+-2320
MB-049H6a1b2yfull ftdnainsufficient access 42444760+-2180
MB-050H6a1b3yfull ftdna A16482G8933760+-1850
MB-051H7yfull ftdna 573.1C+573.2C+T1700C+T11137C+C152T!281918890+-1680
MB-052H7c2yfull ftdna 33351730+-6570
MB-053H7eyfull ftdna 67971490+-2300
MB-054H11a1yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group C16519T81842920+-2080
MB-055H11a2ayfull ftdna 1703960+-1600
MB-056H11a2a2yfull ftdna G7805A+C16519T+C152T!10461300+-1210
MB-057H11b1yfull ftdna C16261T+C152T!25620+-0
MB-058H-T152C!yfull ftdna T710C+C152T!11380+-0
MB-059H10yfull ftdna 1968590+-2260
MB-060H10ayfull ftdnainsufficient access 3536040+-2360
MB-061H10a1byfull ftdna 2022720+-1170
MB-062H10eyfull ftdna 12074680+-2260
MB-063H13a1a1yfull ftdnainsufficient access 3715880+-1890
MB-064H13a1a1ayfull ftdna 11084490+-2180
MB-065H15byfull ftdna C16519T+C16527T7255500+-3300
MB-066H17ayfull ftdna 1416090+-2690
MB-067H23yfull ftdna 11782060+-2840
MB-068H25yfull ftdna 12120+-0
MB-069H26cyfull ftdna 31342940+-7620
MB-070H40byfull ftdna 41441110+-6020
MB-071H41ayfull ftdna C14433T+C16519T18790+-0
MB-072H44a1yfull ftdna 1310+-0
MB-073H47yfull ftdnainsufficient access 3328930+-3030
MB-074H56yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group -12884690+-2980
MB-075H65ayfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group -15300+-0
MB-076HV0-T195C!yfull ftdna C7229T+G11963A+C16519T52890+-0
MB-077HV1a'b'cyfull ftdna G709A+A13098G+T16368C+C16519T+A16129G!10370+-0
MB-078HV1byfull ftdna 1914800+-3690
MB-079HV1b2yfull ftdna 1391571510+-4290
MB-080HV5yfull ftdnainsufficient access 412010+-14530
MB-081HV5ayfull ftdna 66750+-0
MB-082HV10yfull ftdna 1152010+-8600
MB-083I1byfull ftdna 15111130+-4810
MB-084I1cyfull ftdna 788210+-3780
MB-085I1c1ayfull ftdna 44570+-0
MB-086I2ayfull ftdna 1353770+-2140
MB-087I5a1byfull ftdna 140+-0
MB-088I5c1yfull ftdna 1130+-0
MB-089J1b1a1yfull ftdna C2322T+C16519T432756970+-2340
MB-090J1b2yfull ftdna 11026160+-5560
MB-091J1c1yfull ftdna G228+C7966T+T9497C+G14198A+A14332G+T16093C+C16519T+C16189T!+C16311T!3214410090+-2220
MB-092J1c1eyfull ftdna 1150+-0
MB-093J1c3e2yfull ftdnainsufficient access G185A+G228A+C2280T+A13803G+C15853T+A16235G+C16519T+C16311T!5534910+-3010
MB-094J1c4yfull ftdna 11194070+-3080
MB-095J1c5yfull ftdna 122910630+-2320
MB-096J1c-C16261Tyfull ftdnainsufficient access G185A+G228A+T16093C+C16519T+G16274A!7360+-0
MB-097J1c7yfull ftdnainsufficient access 6535940+-3960
MB-098J1c7ayfull ftdna G185A+G228A+T16092C+C16519T802311980+-5370
MB-099J1c13yfull ftdna 12161080+-2240
MB-100J1c14yfull ftdna 5074990+-2910
MB-101J2b1a2ayfull ftdna 1120+-0
MB-102J2b1eyfull ftdna 890+-0
MB-103K1a1b1yfull ftdna 17714210+-3010
MB-104K1a1b1ayfull ftdna 7237524820+-3570
MB-105K1a4yfull ftdna 26115940+-2340
MB-106K1a4ayfull ftdna C6134T+G6480A+A6605G+C16168T72714090+-2670
MB-107K1a5byfull ftdna 1120+-0
MB-108K1a9yfull ftdna 2142271690+-2370
MB-109K1a11yfull ftdna 1704760+-2850
MB-110K2ayfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group -131639100+-2270
MB-111K2a2ayfull ftdnaincorrect data 1201820+-1930
MB-112K2a2a1yfull ftdna 1852340+-0
MB-113L2a1-T16189C!yfull ftdna 220+-0
MB-114L2a1l2a+L2a1l2a1yfull ftdna 77852370+-2140
MB-116M1a1b1cyfull ftdna A16182c of A16183c11170+-0
MB-117M33-T16362Cyfull ftdna 100+-0
MB-118M33cyfull ftdna C4182T+C4577T+A7364G+A16235G122512760+-6950
MB-119N1b1ayfull ftdna 1328980+-4730
MB-120N1b1a2yfull ftdna T4619C+G6249A+T7283C+T13608C+A11914G!+C9335T!3460+-0
MB-121N1b1b1yfull ftdna 2102469720+-3660
MB-122N1b2yfull ftdna 231180+-2030
MB-123N9a3yfull ftdna 18228280+-5120
MB-124R0a2cyfull ftdna 12710540+-6060
MB-125R0a2myfull ftdna T58C43394080+-5630
MB-126R0a4yfull ftdna 45351830+-2560
MB-127T1ayfull ftdna C6656T46514680+-4820
MB-128T1a1yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group -127576990+-2080
MB-129T1a1byfull ftdna G16000A3833860+-2460
MB-130T1a1jyfull ftdna -15295220+-2490
MB-131T1a1k1yfull ftdna 15200+-0
MB-132T1a5yfull ftdna 13110840+-5420
MB-133T1byfull ftdnainsufficient access 4376160+-4800
MB-134T1b3yfull ftdna 18190+-0
MB-135T2a1yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group T16209C+C16296T+G10398A52915220+-2740
MB-136T2a1a8yfull ftdna 1460+-0
MB-137T2a1byfull ftdna A1530G+A10005G+A11020G+T12481a+T16093C+C16296T113113930+-2680
MB-138T2byfull ftdna 180310060+-1610
MB-139T2b3-C151Tyfull ftdna 11150+-0
MB-140T2b4yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group A16241G41665810+-4850
MB-141T2b4ayfull ftdna 2803570+-2840
MB-142T2b-T16362Cyfull ftdna 1500+-0
MB-143T2b16yfull ftdnainsufficient access 5211930+-3690
MB-144T2b25yfull ftdna C16296T+A16129G!35556850+-3260
MB-145T2eyfull ftdna 110811850+-3230
MB-146T2e1yfull ftdna 1869170+-2890
MB-147T2e1b+T2e1b1yfull ftdna 18220+-0
MB-149T2gyfull ftdna 11115710+-5300
MB-150T2g1yfull ftdna 133130+-8050
MB-151T2g1ayfull ftdna C16296T+C195T!3240+-0
MB-152U1b1yfull ftdna A3426G+G5460A+T6365C+G11969A+C16104T+C16111T+A14070G!283711570+-4980
MB-153U5a1a1yfull ftdna 13596830+-3920
MB-154U5a1a1-T152C!yfull ftdna 1720+-0
MB-155U5a1a2ayfull ftdna 2572830+-2530
MB-156U5a1byfull ftdna 21168370+-2760
MB-157U5a1b1yfull ftdna T15893C+C16519T+C16192T!61546980+-1960
MB-158U5a1b1c2yfull ftdna 272460+-2210
MB-159U5a1f1ayfull ftdna 13146500+-3590
MB-160U5a2yfull ftdna 1318410+-3870
MB-161U5a2a1-T152C!yfull ftdna 1530+-0
MB-162U5a2byfull ftdna 116611430+-3180
MB-163U5a2b2ayfull ftdna G15930A+A16265c+C16519T4130+-0
MB-164U5b1yfull ftdna 13315520+-4880
MB-165U5b1b1-T16192C!yfull ftdna 21320+-0
MB-166U5b1e1yfull ftdna 21102600+-1870
MB-167U5b2yfull ftdna 12120040+-3200
MB-168U5b2a1ayfull ftdna 12210610+-3810
MB-169U5b2b4ayfull ftdna 1800+-0
MB-170U6ayfull ftdnaincorrect data 3025080+-3740
MB-171U6a7a1byfull ftdna C16519T12200+-0
MB-172U2e1a1yfull ftdna A8014G+G13708A+A16183c101576150+-2590
MB-173U3a1yfull ftdnainsufficient access 51058910+-3840
MB-174U3a1ayfull ftdna A257G15656840+-3820
MB-175U3a1c1yfull ftdna 1590+-0
MB-176U3b1byfull ftdna 1391890+-2620
MB-177U4ayfull ftdna 130414940+-3340
MB-178U4a3yfull ftdna 134140+-2780
MB-179U4a3ayfull ftdna T13659C7620+-0
MB-180U4b1b1yfull ftdna 11036350+-3290
MB-181U4c1yfull ftdna 11602280+-2180
MB-182U7ayfull ftdna 546816710+-3010
MB-183U8b1b1yfull ftdna 2371830+-2750
MB-184V1a1yfull ftdnanon-Ashkenazi in SNP-group C16519T211495500+-2160
MB-185V7ayfull ftdna T89C+G930A+A12753G+C16519T+C195T!841276020+-2410
MB-186V7byfull ftdna C16173T,C16519T14301910+-1820
MB-187V15yfull ftdna T16093C+T16209C+C16519T6106470+-3270
MB-188V18ayfull ftdna 2300+-0
MB-189V21yfull ftdna 1131160+-7470
MB-190W1hyfull ftdna A4917G+A5582G+A16265G+C16292T!14220+-0
MB-191W3a1a1yfull ftdna 30299600+-2610
MB-192W3b1yfull ftdna 33341510+-2090
MB-193W6ayfull ftdna 1596440+-4170
MB-194X2b7yfull ftdna C198T+A10634G+T14110C+A16183c. C146T! 25436550+-3910
MB-195X2e2yfull ftdnaincorrect data 109740+-5150
MB-196X2e2ayfull ftdnainsufficient access 5276050+-5150

table caption

References

  • Analysis from Family Finder Ashkenazi to Y-DNA and mtdna by Jeff Wexler, 2018.
  • Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations by Badro et al., 2013
  • A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages by Costa et al., 2013.
  • A "Copernican" Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root by Behar, van Oven et al., 2012.
  • Mutation rates on wikipedia.