This map shows the Jewish locations in the Ashkenazi countries in 1750; notice the large population sizes in Amsterdam (Ashkenazi arriving near 1700, smaller amounts Sephardi earlier) and the largest Sephardic city of Salonica. In the traditional Ashkenazi countries the city of Prague has the largest Jewish population. The city had a small Jewish population at the time of the time of the large plague. Starting with king Charles IV (1348-1378) the Czech kings protected the Jews against pogroms in Prague.
This map shows the Jewish locations in the Ashkenazi countries in 1800-1850.
This map shows the Jewish locations in the Ashkenazi countries in 1900-1930.
This map shows the Jewish locations in the Ashkenazi countries in 1950.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
By 1600, about 25% of Poland's population lived in urban centers (settlements with over 500 people). Major towns in Poland included: Gdańsk (Danzig) (70,000), Kraków (28,000), Warsaw (20,000-30,000), Poznań (20,000), Lwów (Lviv) (20,000), Elbląg (Elbing) (15,000), Toruń (Thorn) (12,000), Sandomierz (4,000-5,000), Kazimierz Dolny (4,000-5,000) and Gniezno (4,000-5,000).
The population of the Commonwealth of both nations was never overwhelmingly either Roman Catholic or Polish. This resulted from Poland's possession of Ukraine and federation with Lithuania; in both these countries ethnic Poles were a distinct minority. The Commonwealth comprised primarily three nations: Poles, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians and Belarusians (the latter two usually referred to together as Ruthenians). Shortly after the Union of Lublin (1569), at the turn of the 16th to 17th century, the Commonwealth population was around 7 million, with a rough breakdown of 4.5m Poles, 0.75m Lithuanians, 0.7m Jews and 2m Ruthenians.
In 1618, after the Truce of Deulino the Commonwealth population increased together with its territory, reaching 12 millions that could be roughly divided into: Poles - 4.5m, Ukrainians - 3.5m, Belarusians - 1.5m, Lithuanians - 0.75m, Prussians - 0.75m, Jews - 0.5m, Livionians - 0.5m; at that time nobility formed 10% and burghers, 15%.
Population losses of 1648-1667 are estimated at 4m. Coupled with further population and territorial losses, by 1717 the Commonwealth population had fallen to 9m: roughly 4.5m Poles, 1.5m Ukrainians, 1.2m Belarusians, 0.8m Lithuanians, 0.5m Jews, 0.5m others The urban population was hit hard, falling to below 10%.